Wildflowers…Now’s the time to plant

Everyone in Texas wants bluebonnets. Their velvety leaves topped with blue flowers announce that spring is here. I have a friend who plants them in pockets around his yard and then mows around them until they have dropped their seeds.

Bluebonnets are not the only wildflowers native to Texas. In fact there is a long list of beautiful plants and flowers that thrive in the fertile soils of southeast Texas and particularly in Montgomery County

Another friend has planted wildflower seeds in garden beds alongside more exotic species.

I on the other hand, am actually making new beds just for wildflowers. Several of my neighbors, used to our water-guzzling St. Augustine lawns, have looked askance at my antics, as I ripped out large patches of the weed and replaced it with some good organic soil. My objective: eventually to have a yard full of native and drought-adapted plants.

My back yard is already that way. I have Texas star hibiscus, both red and pink Turk’s cap, passion vine, American beautyberry, lantana, coral bean, wood fern, lanceleaf coreopsis, angel’s trumpet and salvia. Several small red buds and a Mexican plum live there as well. My backyard also sports a raised 4 foot by 20 foot vegetable garden, placed to receive maximum sun in my shady backyard.

My front yard is slowly becoming something like my backyard. Already bushy bluestem and inland sea oats, both unique and beautiful native grasses, grow there –   as do porterweed, verbena, parsley hawthorn, salvia, Louisiana irises, milkweed, native roses, and more lantana.

In the spring, the patches of soil I’ve laid bare will sprout wildflowers. Lots of them.

I’m doing this not only because I like wildflowers. I’m also doing it because native wildflowers are easy to grow here.  After all, for millennia before humans ever set foot in Texas, these plants have been existing and thriving…watered only by rain and fertilized by the rich soil of this area.

Although Montgomery County is technically in the southwestern corner of the Pineywoods Region of Texas, three other distinct ecosystems exist on its borders -the Blackland Prairies and Post Oak Savannah in the northwest and the Gulf Prairies and Marshes to the south and southwest.

These four ecosystems have created a widely diverse collection of plants which do extraordinarily well in gardens here.

Take for instance  the purple coneflower.  Native not only to Texas, but to all of the southeastern U.S. and much of the Midwest, it is a great accent plant, especially when planted in groups. There are also hybrid varieties now which feature light pink and white.

Or black-eyed Susan (Rudbeckia hirta). This plant loves to reseed itself and rewards with some spectacular blooms that continue well into the summer.

Indian blanket is one of my favorite plants. It’s scientific name is Gaillardia pulchella (pulchella being the Latin word for “pretty.”) And it certainly is a pretty plant.

Here are some other natives or adapted wildflowers:

  • Scarlet flax
  • Cosmos
  • Drummond phlox
  • Tickseed
  • Coreopsis
  • Evening primrose
  • Mexican hat
  • Milkweed

In addition to beauty, many of these plants are hosts to the larval stage of desirable butterflies. Others provide nectar for adult butterflies and hummingbirds. The dried seed heads provide food for birds during the winter.

As I see it, there’s no downside to wildflowers and native plants. A beautiful palette of colors and shapes grace my yard, the flowers attract desirable flora and fauna.  I save money by not having to provide water, fertilizer and other chemicals to an always thirsty and hungry lawn, much less mow it. And I give my neighbors something to talk about. Everyone wins.

Two valuable books on wildflowers that you might want to own:

Wildflowers of Houston and Southeast Texas, John and Gloria Tveten, University of Texas Press

A Field Guide to Texas Wildflowers by Campbell and Lynn Loughmiller, University of Texas Press.


Fall is time to sow spring blooming plants

Everyone becomes a gardener in spring. However, it takes a determined gardener to see ahead to the net season. If you want beautiful gardens in the spring, now is the best time to sow or transplant wildflowers and many perennial spring bloomers.

There are many plants gardeners can put in the ground now that will bring color and texture to spring and summer gardens.

Native wildflowers

The list of native bloomers which are grown from seed is quite large. Purple coneflower, Texas blue bonnets, Indian Paint brush, black-eyed Susans, Drummond phlox, liatris, mealy blue sage, purple clematis, blanket flower (gaillardia), evening primrose are a few. Wildflowers add splashes of brilliant and subtle colors, shapes, and textures to an otherwise boring garden. While native seeds can be planted in very early spring, planting in the fall is more in keeping with their nature. Wildflowers propagate themselves in natural surroundings by dropping their seed in the fall. The seed drops to the ground and spends the winter in dormancy. When spring arrives, the seeds germinate. Most of the wildflowers require full sun but some, like the purple clematis, are quite happy in the shade.

Many people think that just strewing wildflower seed on the ground is sufficient for the seed to germinate. Instead rake the soil lightly first, then sow the seed (strewing is okay at this point). Then tamp the seeds into the soil by walking on them, or, for larger areas, use a roller. Do not fertilize. Native wildflowers are adapted to growing in low nutrient soils. Lightly shower to allow them to sink into the soil. Too much water may cause them to germinate too quickly.

A light covering of hay or pine straw is okay, as long as you can see the soil through the covering.

Native grasses

Residents of southeast Texas are extremely lucky to have a wide variety of attractive native grasses: bushy bluestem with its white tufts and straw colored stalks; inland sea oats, it’s attractive seed pods trembling in the wind, and reflecting sunlight; several varieties of muhly grasses that are not only native to Texas, but specifically native to SE Texas and our coastal regions. Plant any of these grasses now for lush green foliage and interesting textures in the spring and summer and spectacular shows next fall and winter. Sow seeds for native ornamental grasses in the fall as well.

Bulbs and rhizomatous plants

Plant (or separate and transplant) narcissus, Dutch hyacinths, crinums, lilies and amaryllis, irises, monarda (bee balm) and yarrow now. This allows the plants to establish their root systems in time for them to burst into color after the end of winter.

Other transplants

Fall is also a great time to transplant Texoma stans (yellow bells), spirea, cross vine, lantana, Pride of Barbados and a variety of other spring bloomers.

When transplanting any plant, make sure the transplant hole is already dug and prepared before you dig up the plant. The old adage “don’t put a $10 plant into a $2 hole” holds true for transplants, either from your garden or from a nursery. Except the price of plants has risen considerably. A crinum, for instance, costs upwards of $20. Dig the hole twice as big as the container, or if you’re transplanting from your yard, twice as big as the root spread. If the hole is too deep, add some of the soil back into the hole and tamp it down. Also, add some compost, and, if you want, a little organic, slow release fertilizer.

Planting in the fall has two benefits for gardeners: it prepares the landscape for spring and it gives inveterate gardeners their soil fix before winter sets in.

Earthworms: Free fertilizer for lawns

“It may be doubted that there are many other animals which have played so important a part in the history of the world as have these lowly organized creatures.”

-Charles Darwin, The Formation of Vegetable Mould through the Action of Worms.

The best method to judge the health of the soil beneath a lawn is to discover how many earthworms are present.

Earthworms can restore the hard pan of compacted dirt so prevalent in lawns. Their castings are rich in nutrients: nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, three major elements necessary for plant growth and photosynthesis. Castings also contain magnesium, carbon, calcium – all very important plant nutrients. In just one year, a thousand earthworms (and their descendants) can transform one ton of organic waste into high-yield fertilizer.

Some important ways earthworms help transform the soil:

  • They tunnel through the soil, aerating it as they go.
  • Their channels also allow water to enter and penetrate the soil more quickly.
  • Grass roots can also grow better in soil loosened by earthworms, resulting in a deeper root system and healthier lawns.
  • Earthworms neutralize the soil, either lowering the alkalinity or raising the acidity. Turf grass likes soil nearer to the middle between acidic and alkaline.
  • Earthworms consume organic material (like thatch).
  • Worms can compost four times quicker than a well-managed composting bin.
  • A large population of earthworms helps control pests. Many soil-borne diseases are reduced significantly when earthworms are present.

How to attract earthworms:

  • Spread ¾ inch of organic material twice a year onto the lawn (mid-October and mid-April are the best times).
  • Use a mulching lawnmower and let the clippings drop back onto the lawn. Earthworms will bring much of this material below ground to eat and digest.
  • Don’t use pesticides or use them in extreme moderation. Choose organic pesticides if necessary. Pesticides are indiscriminate and kill earthworms and other beneficial organisms.
  • Don’t use man-made chemical fertilizers. “Chemical” fertilizers contain sulfuric and hydrochloric acids which are deadly to earthworms. Few worms exist in soils treated with chemicals. Use organic fertilizers instead.

There is no need to add earthworms to your lawn. There are earthworms in the area and will be attracted to chemical-free, organic ally rich soil. And the turf grass will be well on its way to being healthy and green.

5 Lawn watering myths debunked!

There’s nothing like sitting in the backyard, cool drink in hand, smelling the sweet aroma of freshly-mowed grass. Through the years, gardeners learn about lawns – how to care for them, how to make them lush and green, and how to keep them healthy. But along with the good information passed on, there might be some incorrect and misleading data.

Here are some myths about good lawn care, and some practices that can improve the health of lawns while lowering overall lawn care costs:

Myth 1: If watering a little is good for lawns, then watering a lot must be better.

Too much water on lawns actually encourages grass to produce shorter and weaker root systems. In turn, weak roots are more susceptible to diseases and insect damage. Too much water will also kill beneficial organisms in the soil. And, since heavy watering can also promote fungal infections, over-irrigation creates a bundle of problems.

Lawns should receive about an inch of water every 7 to 10 days. That includes rainwater. Rain sensors can tell the gardener how much water has fallen in a given period of time. If, for instance it has rained a half an inch in the last week, then grass should receive only a half-inch of water that week through irrigation.

Myth 2: Automatic sprinkler systems save money and time.

Often, automatic sprinkler systems without rain sensors attached actually waste water (and thus money). It’s common in Montgomery County to see water running into the storm sewer from an overactive sprinkler system. And it’s not uncommon to see sprinklers running while rain is falling.

Myth 3: Manually operated sprinkler systems are the only way to go.

If the sprinkler heads are misdirected or damaged, the water may be going to the wrong place anyway. Whether a system is automated or manually operated, it still should be inspected by a licensed irrigator to make sure it is still operating properly. Many MUD districts offer free inspections by licensed irrigators.

Myth 4: Grass will dry out and die if it is not watered every day or every other day.

Grass doesn’t need to be watered every day or every other day. If it starts to curl, or keeps the impression of a footprint, it is time to water. (See Myth 1.)

Myth 5: Watering too much only wastes a tiny bit of water.

Fifty to 75 percent of all drinking water used in municipalities goes to watering lawns and gardens. In dry summer months that can increase to 80 percent or more. The amount wasted can be enormous. As population grows, more and more water is being drawn out of underground aquifers more quickly than the aquifers can recharge. Above ground reservoirs also become stressed.

Irrigating wisely helps create healthy lawns, conserves water, and saves money. Here are some helpful tips for watering.

Here’s what you should do instead

Minimize watering

This forces the grass to grow long, healthy roots, helping the plant with disease resistance. It also helps the grass during periods of drought, because deep root systems can store plant nourishment and water. Stronger roots can also seek water from the soil more easily. Adding too much water may help increase nitrous oxide emissions from lawns. Nitrous oxide is a dangerous greenhouse gas.

Too many people watering too much have a cumulative effect. The more water put onto a lawn requires pumps to work longer, thus increasing carbon dioxide emissions.

Leave grass clippings on the lawn

Grass clippings increase carbon storage in the soil by almost 60 percent. It also adds the nitrogen from the tips of the grass back into the soil. It saves time and money. Additionally, it promotes continuous root growth and decreases need for fertilizers.

Mow high

Don’t “crew cut” a lawn. When grass shoots are taller, they help create a healthy root system. Healthy root systems mean less watering. Grass should be cut at three inches or higher. Keep mower blades sharp so it cuts the grass keenly. This reduces a plant’s water loss and stress.

Water the lawn in the coolest part of the day

This minimizes evaporation and reduces stress.

Following some or all of these tips can lead to a healthier, more disease-resistant lawn, possibly saving money, time and water in the long run.

via New Tab.

Top 10 Mistakes Gardeners Make

There is a saying that one cannot be a good gardener if she (or he) has not killed at least a thousand plants. That said, there must be a large number of great gardeners.

Gardening mistakes can be time consuming and ultimately costly. Correcting some of these mistakes may sound counterintuitive, but understanding and avoiding  very common errors helps create healthier and more attractive lawns and gardens.

Common Mistakes

  1. Overwatering encourages shallow root systems, stresses plants, wastes water and increases their susceptible to disease and pests. Watering every day is one of the largest mistakes. Water deeply, but only once or twice a week. Most plants (including lawns) go dormant during the fall and winter, so they don’t need much or any water.
  2. Too much fertilizer can cause real problems in the landscape. Too much fertilizer may kill beneficial microbes in the soil, actually encourage disease and requires extra water. Especially dangerous are chemical fertilizers which contain lots of salt. Salt kills organisms, and good gardeners know that the micro- and macro-organisms in the soil are important to soil and plant health. Additionally, fertilizer runoff is one of the largest polluters of our streams, waterways and esturaries.
  3. Kill all those bugs. The goal is to get the unwanted pests under control and the good ones encouraged. Using chemical pesticides kills beneficial soil organisms and the insects that keep pests and diseases at bay. Even organic pesticides should be used sparingly. As with fertilizers, pesticides leach into our water systems.
  4. Misdiagnosing a problem. Know thine enemy. Search the internet for answers or use the local master gardener hotline (if there is one in your area) to identify the problem and possible solutions. Contact the local extension service. There are probably a number of master gardeners in your area who would be happy to help you as well. Two good books for plant and garden care are The Vegetable Book, a Texan’s Guide to Gardening, by Dr. Sam Cotner and Doug Welsh’s Texas Garden Almanac.
  5. Non-native or non-adapted plants. Azaleas – yes. Palms – no. There are several great sources for native plants and ones that are adapted to the Gulf Coast region. One source is Earthkind. This site, produced by Texas A&M, provides hundreds of plants that are adapted to the region. Simply choose your region or input your zip code and the website will lead you through the rest. Another valuable site is Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center’s Native Plant Database, which will guide you to lists, planting instructions and habits of hundreds of native species.
  6. Right plant but wrong place. Think and plan before planting. Plants that love the sun probably won’t do well in a shady area. Plants that like dry, well-drained soil won’t be happy in a bog garden.
  7. Not preparing soil before planting. Healthy soil = nutrients and beneficial microorganisms = healthy plants. Use good, organic compost. If you are buying from a local compost operation, ask for specifics on the compost. Compost is generally sold by the bag, or by cubic yard. If buying from a big box store, check the labels to see if it discloses anything about the compost. Find A Composter  is a good place to start.
  8. No mulch. Mulch helps the soil retain moisture, keeps soil at a more constant temperature and discourages weeds. As it decomposes, mulch adds nutrients to the soil. A word of caution. Those pretty mulches which are orange or black are probably dyed. The dye is not something to worry about, because it is made from soy-based dyes,.But the source of the mulch is something to worry about, especially if it discloses that it is made from “recycled” wood (mostly from shredded shipping pallets). Many of these pallets contain wood that has been saturated with chromated copper aresenate (CCA), as a preservative. The CCA can leach into the ground. It can also be taken up by the plant into leaves and fruit. If you must use dyed mulch, do not use it on your vegetable garden.
  9. Planting or pruning at the wrong time. Plant and prune trees in the winter when they are dormant. Don’t resod in the winter.Plant spring blooming flowers in the fall. Plant fall blooming flowers in the spring.
  10. Short-term thinking. How big is that little sapling  going to get in five or 10 years? How much space will the one-gallon esperanza need in a couple of seasons? Remember that those little plants being well irrigated by your sprinkler system now may have a lot of trouble watering everyting when the plants get big. Consider installing drip irrigation in your beds. Drip produces no wastage, gets water down into the root systems where it’s needed and reduces your water bill.

If you have a question or would like to respond, please do so below.

Night-blooming jasmine and angel trumpets…haunting scents of the evening

Night-blooming jasmine
Night-blooming jasmine

And the night-blooming flowers open,
open in the same hour I remember those I love.
In the middle of the viburnums
the twilight butterflies have appeared.

Giovanni Pascoli, Night Blooming Jasmine 

A night-blooming jasmine stands next to my front door. It has bloomed several times this year. The flowers are tiny and not showy. But the wonderful scent…almost overwhelming, greets us in the evening every time we open the door.

Out our bedroom window, a line of eight-foot tall angel trumpets.

Just after dusk and well into the night, sphinx moths and other nocturnal Lepidoptera gather around the fragrant blooms of night-blooming jasmine ( Cestrum nocturnum) and angel trumpets (Brugmansia). Later in the evening, the Mexican long-tongued bat and the lesser long-nosed bat, having traveled thousands of miles from southern Mexico, may fly in and sip nectar from the pungent blooms of both.

The perfumes emanating from these two plants are intoxicating.

Angel Trumpets (Brugmansia

In zones 8 and 9, it is considered a perennial, and may stay green all winter. A cold winter though could freeze it down to the ground. Have no fear, it is a “herbaceous perennial,” which means the root system is probably intact. If it does freeze back, it will probably come back stronger than ever. However, it does equally well in pots, and can be overwintered inside.

Angel trumpets relish sun and will tolerate partial shade. However, there are many specimen plants along the coast which have grown to 10-12 feet in the shade, and some which have grown to 20 feet.  Average height is about 6-8 feet high and 5-8 feet wide. Angel trumpets, like all members of the nightshade family, like regular fertilization. Use a slow release, organic fertilizer and apply once a week. They are also foliage feeders.  Spray the leaves with fish emulsion or compost tea. Brugmansia like well drained, light, fertile soil, and need to be watered frequently. They bloom spring, summer and fall, and sometimes during mild winters. They are deer resistant.

Night-blooming jasmine (Cestrum nocturnum)

This night-blooming shrub generally grows up to six feet tall (although it can grow up to 13 feet tall if trained. Mine are at least 8 feet)  and is a cousin to Angel trumpet. Although the blooms are nondescript, it out-competes Brugmansia in fragrance.  Although it does provide an interesting backdrop in the garden, with its green glossy leaves and fanning pattern of its branches, gardeners generally plant it for the fragrance.

Although the plant is not frost tolerant, and might freeze back to the ground in winter, it too is an herbaceous perennial. Unless the winter is exceptionally cold for a prolonged period, it will generally sprout back up from the still-living root system in the spring. Growing the plant indoors, it will bloom all year round, filling the house will its delightful fragrance.  Make sure the plant receives enough light, fertilizer and water and is kept in temperatures between 70 and 80 degrees F.

Night blooming jasmine likes sun, but not too much. Planting it in an eastern facing garden where it receives some shade during the afternoon is ideal. The plant also likes water, but not too much. Too much water can rot the roots and encourage mold.

Angel trumpets and night-blooming jasmine are members of the Solanaceae family, which includes nightshade, tomatoes, eggplant, peppers, potatoes, petunias, and tobacco, and should be handled with some care. Angel trumpet contains a powerful hallucinogen and should not be consumed. However, simply handling the plant is not dangerous, and if concerned, wear gloves.    They are also poisonous to pets, but no more so than lantana, azaleas, castor bean or moonflower.

Both can be easily rooted from cuttings. A smidgeon of growth hormone on a new growth twig, with the bark shaved at the end, planted in a ½ gallon nursery pot filled with compost will be fine. I’ve started them in winter under a grow light and in the warmer months outside. Keep watered. It will root in a couple of weeks. Start several.

Above all, enjoy these two plants.


Honey Bees,  Mites, and Neonicotinoid Insecticides…What’s causing our honey bee decline

By Bob Dailey

Honey bees are disappearing at alarming rates across the globe and scientists are still scrambling to find out the causes.

Since honeybees are responsible for pollinating 30% of the world’s food crops and 90% of our wild plants, the decline is something to sit up and take notice of.

Significant declines in the world’s honey bee populations began around 2006. Of course, this is not the first time that the world has seen bee decline. It’s occurred more than once in the 4,000 plus years since the ancient Egyptians began keeping bees.

But this time, the decline seems to be different. Beekeepers report that during the 2012-2013 winter, they lost 45.7 percent of their hives. So what’s causing it?

U.S. scientists and bee experts all agree that the two types of mites, the Varoa mite (Varoa destructor) and the Tracheal mite (Acarapis woodi) are the two most significant thugs in the bee world. Varoa infest both the brood and adult stages of bees. Feeding on the blood of the bee, they weaken the insect and also infect it with viruses. Studies have also shown that secondary infections from Varoa causes bees to become disoriented and not able to find their way back to the hive.

The Tracheal mite lays eggs inside the tracheae (the breathing apparatus) of bees. It also feeds on the blood of bees, but also weakens them by inhibiting their breathing ability.

But mites are not the only culprits. A relatively new type of insecticide, called neonicotinoid, is also affecting bee colonies. The name “neonicotinoid” literally means “new nicotine-like insecticides. Although the jury is still out on how much neonicotinoids affect the Colony Collapse Syndrome, there is pertinent data about the insecticide that lends credibility to the situation.

In the report “Are Neonicotinoids Killing Bees, A Review of Research into the Effects of Neonicotinoid Insecticides on Bees, with Recommendations for Action.” by Jennifer Hopwood, Mace Vaughan, Matthew Shepherd, David Biddinger, Eric Mader, Scott Hoffman Black, and Celeste Mazzacano.

Some of the findings of the report:

  • Neonicotinoid residues are found in pollen and nectar consumed by pollinators such as bees and butterflies. The residues can reach lethal concentrations in some situations.
  • Neonicotinoids can persist in soil for months or years after a single application. Measurable amounts of residues were found in woody plants up to six years after application.
  • Untreated plants may absorb chemical residues left over in the soil from the previous year.
  • Products approved for homeowners to use in gardens, lawns, and on ornamental trees have manufacturer-recommended application rates up to 120 times higher than rates approved for agricultural crops. 

Insecticides that contain neonicotinoids include

A number of scientist agree that the effects of neonicotinoids should be investigated. In fact, the European Union has placed  moratorium on the sale of the product until further research can be conducted on its effects on bees.

Dr. Michael Merchant, Texas A&M Agrilife Extension Urban Entomologist, notes in a recently published abstract that two reports in Science magazine showed that neonicotinoids disrupted the homing abilities of foraging honey bees and colony growth in bumble bees. A Harvard School of Public Health study links the use of neonicotinoids to the ongoing demise of honey bee colonies. Dr. Merchant does add that this research has been “challenged by pesticide manufacturers and some researchers.”

There are currently 465 neonicotinoid-containing products on the U.S. market now, most of them readily available to consumers for backyard use.

The EPA, although not officially banning the use of neonicotinoids, has taken two important steps in regulating them. First, the EPA has said it will likely not approve “most applications of new use of these chemicals” until it obtains new data and research on possible dangers to pollinators.

The EPA also requires that all insecticides which may harm bees be labeled with the “Bee Box”that alerts users to not use if bees are present in the area, which is most of the time.

About 95 percent of the corn seeds in the world are treated with neonicotinoids, which supposedly increases yield by reducing insect predation. Neonicotinoid-treated soybean seeds are also widespread, although the EPA has recently released a study that says treating the seeds offers little,if any, economic benefit to soybean farmers’ economic bottom lines. In other words, some farmers are using pesticide-treated seeds they don’t need.

In addition to honey bees concerns, the USDA has released a report that links neonicotinoids to monarch butterfly decline. Researchers found that milkweed containing neonicotinoids “could negatively affect larval monarch populations.”

The jury is still out on the effects of neonicotinoids on bees. Many researchers believe there the chemicals have no provable effects on bees. Others say there is an abundance of evidence.

Whatever one’s feelings lie, there are alternatives to neonicotinoids.

Aphids and many other pest species are attracted to plants fertilized with high nitrogen products, a typical component of synthetic fertilizer operations. Organic compost, compost teas, low-nitrogen  organic fertilizers and fish emulsions release nitrogen slowly into the soil and aphids tend to avoid them.

Diversity in a garden is best. Plant a wide variety of native flowers, grasses and bushes to encourage natural predators like birds and ladybugs.

For lawns, use organic compost at least twice a year. Raise the mower blade and leave at least 2+ inches of grass blade. Sharpen mower blades.

Both Home Depot and Lowes have announced that they will ban insecticides that contain neonicotinoids, and are requiring that plants which have been sprayed with the inseciticide be labelled as such before being sold.

A partial list of products containing neonicotinoids include:

  • Bayer Advanced 3-in-1 Insect, Disease, & Mite Control
  • Bayer Advanced 12 Month Tree & Shrub Insect Control
  • Bayer Advanced 12 Month Tree & Shrub Protect & Feed
  • Bayer Advanced Fruit, Citrus & Vegetable Insect Control
  • Bayer Advanced All-in-One Rose & Flower Care concentrate
  • DIY Tree Care Products Multi-Insect Killer
  • Ferti-lome 2-N-1 Systemic
  • Hi-Yield Systemic Insect Spray
  • Hunter
  • Knockout Ready-To-Use Grub Killer
  • Lesco Bandit
  • Marathon
  • Merit
  • Monterey Once a Year Insect Control II
  • Ortho Bug B Gon Year-Long Tree & Shrub Insect Control
  • Ortho MAX Tree & Shrub Insect Control
  • Surrender Brand GrubZ Out
  • Bayer Advanced All-in-One Rose & Flower Care granules
  • Flagship
  • Greenlight Grub control with Arena
  • Maxide Dual Action Insect Killer
  • Meridian
  • Ortho flower, Fruit and Vegetable Insect Killer
  • Ortho Rose and Flower Insect Killer
  • Green Light Tree and Shrub Insect Control with Safari 2G
  • Safari
  • Transect
  •  Zylam 20SG Systemic Turf Insecticide

Imported Fire Ants: Prolific, protective and venomous.

Keep the grits, club soda, cayenne pepper, cinnamon, and coffee grounds in the pantry.  None of these “folk” remedies work on fire ants.

Red imported fire ants (Solenopsis invicta) love to make their nests in sunny spots, which, as often as not, happen to be in the middle of a beautiful, well-cared-for lawn.

Prolific, protective and  venomous,  a typical mature fire ant colony contains at least 80,000 workers. Some mounds may contain over 200,000 workers. Queens can live 5 years or more and can lay as many as 1,500 eggs a day.

Fire ant venom is related to the main chemical ingredient in black pepper. Although the stings are painful, and pustules form on the skin of most people, less than one percent of the population actually has an allergic reaction to these creatures.

There are  few “urban legend” remedies that do work. A YouTube video showing a person pouring molten aluminum into a fire ant nest  proves that process works – killing 100 percent of the colony – but it can be a trifle complicated…and expensive.  Boiling water poured into a nest also will eliminate about 60 percent of the population, but the remaining number will quickly multiply. Some recommend simply flooding the nests with tap water, but this will only make the ants move, perhaps to another yard, which may not engender favor with neighbors. Pouring gasoline into a mound and igniting it will kill many of the ants but will also contaminate the soil for years.

There are, however, ways to eliminate fire ants that are also harmless to the environment.


An oil extract made from orange peels, d-limonene erodes the fire ant exoskeletons, essentially suffocating them.  D-limonene also kills other insects as well, such as roaches, earwigs, and silverfish.


Spinosad is an insecticide derived from a bacterium. It affects the nervous system of insects, causing “hyperexcitation,” which means they simply run themselves to death. Spinosad is also used to kill fleas, and many heart worm medicines for dogs have spinosad in them.  Spinosad should not be broadcast over a large area, but should be confined to the area on and immediately around the mound. Spinosad is toxic to bees, and should be spread in early morning or late afternoon when bees are not foraging.


Like Spinosad, Abamecten is a bacterial derivative. When an insect consumes abamecten, it becomes paralyzed and dies shortly after. Since abamecten is also highly toxic to bees, care should be taken to apply it in early morning or late afternoon.  Follow package directions.

Diatomaceous Earth

Made up of the fossilized remains of diatoms, a hard-shelled algae, this naturally abrasive product erodes the waxy layer on the ant’s exoskeleton, causing it to die of dehydration. However, once wet, diatomaceous earth loses its abrasive qualities as far as insects are concerned, anyway. It is used in toothpaste and cosmetics as well.

Do the Texas Two Step

Step 1: Apply Spinosad or Abamecten to the mound. Sprinkle it on and around the mound at the recommended amount. While some directions include broadcasting it with a spreader, it’s best to avoid this. While organic, these two insecticides are indiscriminate.

Step 2:  About a week later, thoroughly drench the mound with d-limonene.

Texas Three Step

Repeat the process. Several days after drenching with d-limonene, you can spread diatomaceous earth on the mound.

There are man-made chemical chemicals that can also be used. For more information on these, contact the Montgomery Master Gardener Hotline at 936-539-7824.


Red imported fire ants areaggressive and their it is painfull.

Make your lawn a giant rainwater harvesting system

As water becomes a more precious and expensive natural resource, experts are looking at ways to conserve and extend its usefulness. This is especially true for lawns, which guzzle large amounts of drinking water, especially during long, hot summers.

There is a way, though, to turn the lawn into a gigantic water harvesting device that will help save money, conserve water, and provide healthier and more disease- and insect-resistant turf.

In studies conducted by Texas A&M, Michigan State University and others, adding organic material to your lawn can greatly increase the soil’s water holding capacity.

Water-holding abilities of organic matter

Soil scientists note that for every 1 percent of organic matter added to soil increases its water holding capacity to about 1.5 quarts of water per cubic foot. Two percent organic matter can hold up to three quarts per cubic foot.

1% equals 1,500 gallons of water

Look at a 4,000 square-foot lawn, and take a cross section of it, a foot deep.  Those 4,000 square feet suddenly become 4,000 cubic feet of soil.  If one percent  organic matter added to soil can increase the soil’s water holding capacity to 1.5 quarts per cubic foot, a simple calculation shows that the 4,000 square-foot-lawn (also 4,000 cubic feet), can hold 6,000 quarts. That comes to 1,500 gallons of water.

Take that same 4,000 square-foot lawn, but instead of adding one percent organic matter, add two percent. The soil’s water holding capacity becomes 3 quarts per cubic foot, or 12,000 quarts. That many quarts equal 3,000 gallons of water, held in the soil – a significant amount.

Logically, one would think that if two percent can save so much water, four percent or five percent would do even better. And it would! However, because of the climate in southeast Texas, organic material decomposes relatively quickly. Getting and maintaining more than two percent into any given soil, is very difficult here. But twice-a-year application of organic material to the lawn should be sufficient to maintain a two percent level.

Irrigation and Rainwater

Good soil with an abundance of organic matter absorbs water. Just an inch or so of rain on 4,000 square feet will create almost 3,000 gallons of water.  That much water, stored in the soil, can eliminate a week of watering, and save homeowners a bundle.

When an irrigation system waters the lawn, excess water is absorbed by the organic matter. Instead of running off into the street, it is saved and stored in the soil.

Where to find organic matter

Organic material can be found anywhere. Home composting bins are excellent sources. Instead of bagging grass clippings, a mulching mower drops cut grass blades back onto the soil. Grass clippings are full of nutrients and organic matter.

Spreading compost over the lawn about 1/3 to ½ inch deep twice a year (once in mid-October and once in mid-April) will also add organic material to the soil.

Organic material also improves the population of beneficial insects and microbes in the soil, strengthens grass roots by allowing them to grow deeper and keeps the soil at a more even temperature.

Try “No Till” in your vegetable garden

Humans have tilled the earth since they stopped being hunter-gatherers and became farmers. The tradition has been to turn over the earth before planting to get rid of weeds and to make it easier to use fertilizers to plant crops. Mechanical tillers have made things easier, but tilling is still one of a gardener’s most difficult tasks.

However, soil scientists are now realizing that tilling interferes with the complex relationship of the soil and the micro-organisms that keep the soil healthy and productive. Tilling also compacts the soil, brings long-dormant weed seeds to the surface sale and adds to erosion. In fact, poor agricultural practices like tilling helped develop the Great Dust Bowl of the 1920s and 1930s.

Gardeners who practice the “no-till” method never disturb the bed once it is established. Instead, they add amendments like compost, manure, peat, lime and fertilizer to the top of the bed.  Water and the micro-organisms in the soil pull the nutrients down into the subsoil.  Instead of weeding, they use mulch to prevent weeds from germinating. The results of “no-till” gardening: good, spongy soil, rich in micro-organisms and beneficial fungi. This allows the roots of young seedlings to penetrate through the soil.

“No-Till” Gardening Benefits

Aeration and drainage

Earthworms, micorrhizal fungi and other soil organisms are keys to good soil structure. Worm tunnels provide drainage. Their excretions help fertilize the soil and bind the soil to provide for aeration. Gardeners who practice the no-till process say that their vegetable plots are freer of diseases and pests.


Water Savings

Good layers of mulch allow water to pass through into the soil, while shading the soil, keeping it at a more constant temperature. This is especially important in Southeast Texas, where late spring sun beats down mercilessly on garden beds. The mulch also prevents evaporation, and helps create a moist growing environment.

Less weeding

Most garden beds contain weed seeds which stay dormant until they become exposed to sunlight. Dormant weed seeds will remain dormant indefinitely in no-till gardens. Gardeners can easily remove the few weeds carried in by the wind or birds.

Saves time and energy

Some gardeners till with a shovel, turning over the soil one scoop at a

Leaving the roots of plants in the soil adds to the organic content.
Leaving the roots of plants in the soil adds to the organic content.

time. Others use gas-powered tillers. No-till gardeners save time and energy.

Keeping the carbon in the soil

Good soil has a great deal of carbon. Humus, compost and other decaying organic matter provides carbon and other carbon-dependent nutrients to plants. Tilling the soil speeds up the breakdown of organic matter. When this happens, it releases the nutrients too quickly, increasing the need for more fertilizers. Good plant growth requires a slow, steady release of nutrients. No-till gardening promotes this process.

Earthworm population

Soil without earthworms tends to be poor soil. A good earthworm population in garden soil is a good indication that the soil is healthy. Earthworms create tunnels which help water and air to filter deeply into the soil. Tilling destroys these structures. In addition, earthworm excretions (called worm castings) are extremely rich in desired micro-organisms and nutrients.

Reduces Erosion

The no-till method reduces erosion. It increases the carbon in the soil, which helps prevent fertilizers and topsoil from being washed away.

Types of mulches

Since mulch is such an important component of no-till gardening, it’s important to know what types of mulches work best. First, remember that mulch and compost are not the same thing. Mulch is organic matter that has not yet become compost.

Good sources of mulch:

  • Straw: Excellent mulching material, as opposed to hay, which may have weed seeds.
  • Pine straw: Don’t curse the pine needles in your yard. Save them for mulch. Many municipalities and homeowners are using pine straw. It degrades slowly and therefore has a longer life than many other mulches.
  • Leaves: A great source of carbon and other nutrients. After all, the largest amount of all nutrients in a plant are in its leaves. There are two easily-fixed problems with leaves. They sometimes tend to mat, and they tend to blow away. Spreading leaves in thin layers and sprinkling a little soil on each layer will help prevent both these problems.
  • Newspaper: Since paper is made of wood, these are good sources of carbon. However, newspapers tend to blow away. As with leaves, sprinkle soil between each layer.
  • Seaweed: Seaweed has a large amount of trace minerals that plants need. Slugs don’t like it, so it acts as a slug repellant as well.

Gardeners who want less strenuous work, good vegetable production, and continuous soil health might want to give no-till gardening a try.